There is a bug in the book code's pom.xml which causes the unit tests to fail with the following exception:

org.apache.maven.surefire.util.SurefireReflectionException: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException; nested exception is java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException: null
java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.util.ReflectionUtils.invokeMethodWithArray(ReflectionUtils.java:164)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ProviderFactory$ProviderProxy.invoke(ProviderFactory.java:110)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.SurefireStarter.invokeProvider(SurefireStarter.java:172)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.SurefireStarter.runSuitesInProcessWhenForked(SurefireStarter.java:104)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ForkedBooter.main(ForkedBooter.java:70)
Caused by: java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: com/java7developer/chapter11/listing_11_13/TicketTest : Unsupported major.minor version 51.0
at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass1(Native Method)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClassCond(ClassLoader.java:631)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass(ClassLoader.java:615)
at java.security.SecureClassLoader.defineClass(SecureClassLoader.java:141)
at java.net.URLClassLoader.defineClass(URLClassLoader.java:283)
at java.net.URLClassLoader.access$000(URLClassLoader.java:5smilie
at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:197)
at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:190)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:306)
at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:301)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:247)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.util.DefaultDirectoryScanner.loadClass(DefaultDirectoryScanner.java:105)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.util.DefaultDirectoryScanner.locateTestClasses(DefaultDirectoryScanner.java:7smilie
at org.apache.maven.surefire.junit4.JUnit4Provider.scanClassPath(JUnit4Provider.java:174)
at org.apache.maven.surefire.junit4.JUnit4Provider.invoke(JUnit4Provider.java:83)
... 9 more

The reason is that the Surefire plugin uses the default JVM to run the tests which may be different to the JDK 7 required by the book code.

To fix the problem, one has to make the Surefire plugin use the correct JVM. Make the following changes to the book code's pom.xml

<!-- Surefire plugin (runs tests, excludes deliberately failing tests -->
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
<version>2.9</version>
<configuration>
<jvm>${jdk.home}/bin/java</jvm>
<excludes>
....
</excludes>
</configuration>
</plugin>